Year in Reading

A Year in Reading: Stephen Dodson (Languagehat)

By posted at 11:00 am on December 1, 2011 4

coverA mist hung over the earth. So begins one of the great novels of the twentieth century, Vasily Grossman’s Life and Fate; the short drumroll of a sentence is somehow ominous, and we soon discover we are outside a German prison camp, looking through barbed wire at a set of identical wooden barracks. The next chapter takes us inside the camp, where we meet a collection of Russians of various political persuasions, as well as Spaniards, Italians, Englishmen, even an American colonel (who finds it strange that an intelligent-looking Russian major can’t understand his English). This movement, from outside in, is typical of the novel, which takes us places we don’t want to go, but does so with a humane insistence we find impossible to resist. After six chapters in which we get to know these people – especially the Old Bolshevik Mostovskoy, who is troubled that “much in his own soul had become alien to him” – we are suddenly dropped into a command post in the besieged city of Stalingrad, where we are confronted with an entirely different collection of people, some of them historical figures (generals and commissars) and others fictional. This too is typical; the novel does not let us rest for long in any situation, but whisks us up and down the Volga (much of it is set in cities like Kazan and Saratov), west to Moscow, and further west to the German camps, showing us a vast panorama of Russia (and Germany) at war.

coverIf this is reminiscent of War and Peace, it should be; Grossman, a war correspondent who visited the front as often as he could and shared as much as he could of the soldiers’ lives, carried a copy with him and read it constantly, and he was deliberately creating a counterpart to Tolstoy’s epic. A foolish undertaking, you might think, but he pulled it off. His huge novel has nothing in common with the modernist works that stand beside it on the shelf of twentieth-century Russian masterpieces, Bely’s Petersburg and Olesha’s Envy and Nabokov’s The Gift; there are no magical interludes or language games or hidden messages, just a well-told tale of an extended family caught up in circumstances beyond their, or anyone’s, control. We get to know Lyudmila, annoyed with her husband, her daughter, and her mother (who lives with her in Kazan), terrified for her son Tolya (who’s in the army), and concerned for her sister Evgeniya; Evgeniya’s ex-husband Krymov, who’s sent to Stalingrad as a commissar; and especially Lyudmila’s husband Viktor Shtrum, a physicist who almost as soon as we’re introduced to him we find thinking “about something he’d never thought about before, something fascism had forced him to think about – the fact that he was a Jew, and that his mother was a Jew.” Those facts are guns on the wall, and following Chekhov’s prescription they go off.

It is of course inevitable that the Nazis play a considerable role in a World War II novel, and the horrors of their beliefs and their actions are not stinted; what is astonishing is that they are presented as human beings with understandable motives, unlike in almost any other Russian war novel. And what is even more astonishing is that the doctrinaire communists are presented as no better than the doctrinaire Nazis – the Soviet system of camps and terror is explicitly compared to the German one. It is almost inconceivable that Grossman thought this book could be published in the Soviet Union in 1960, but he did; he was doubtless prepared for it to be rejected by the magazine he sent it to, but not for the secret police to show up and confiscate every scrap of it they could get their hands on – Grossman was told by a top member of the Politburo that it could not be published for two hundred years. However, a copy was eventually smuggled abroad (long after the author’s premature death in 1964) and published in 1980; at that point, in the depths of the Brezhnev stagnation, no one could have guessed that in less than a decade it would be published in the Soviet Union, shortly before that country ceased to exist. It had a powerful effect, but it was only one of a flood of forbidden works that were suddenly appearing; we can only imagine the effect it would have had if it could have appeared in its full, scarifying glory in 1960, with the war fresh in memory and Stalin even fresher. It might well be Grossman rather than Pasternak or Solzhenitsyn who was remembered as the writer who exploded the frozen Stalinist world of literature.

coverI said there were no language games, but I didn’t mean the writing is not superbly effective. Remember that opening sentence? The payoff comes hundreds of pages later, in part II, chapter 29 (chapter 28 in the NYRB translation). Obersturmbannführer Liss is visiting the site where an extermination camp is being constructed, and as his plane lands Grossman says A mist spread over the earth. Even if a reader doesn’t consciously remember the first line of the novel, this reprise should make a chill run up the spine. Unfortunately, the existing translation does not bring this out (I’ve retranslated all the quotes here); it’s well enough done that I encourage everyone to go out and get it, but it’s got enough omissions and mistranslations that it’s high time another one appeared. Many of the other recent Russian classics (like Bulgakov’s Master and Margarita and Venedikt Erofeev’s Moscow-Petushki) have multiple translations, and it’s the least Grossman deserves. His combination of bravura storytelling and clear moral vision has few peers.

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4 Responses to “A Year in Reading: Stephen Dodson (Languagehat)”

  1. Paul
    at 11:17 am on December 1, 2011

    Problems of translation notwithstanding, NYRB deserves tremendous kudos for making this book so widely available, and so conveniently portable. I read it five years ago while working on a research paper on Isaac Babel, who was to the Revolution roughly what Grossman was to WWII. The immense difference in scale of their best writings (most of the stories in Babel’s Red Cavalry are only a few pages long) does not diminish the validity of the comparison, for both writers were commited to presenting war with great immediacy, and both avoided making their characters more sympathetic than actual people, thrust into such violent conditions, would be.

  2. Garth Risk Hallberg
    at 10:04 am on December 2, 2011

    Roger that. This is a beautiful and stirring book – a good one to read over a week or three where you have little else to do and can sink in for dozens of pages at a time. I wrote about it in much more cursory fashion for 2009′s Year in Reading…That letter from Shtrum’s mother is one of my favorite pieces of writing.

    Btw: Olesha and Erofeev are new to me, so…bless/curse you, Year in Reading! That’s two more titles to add to my already over-long list for 2012.

  3. Tom B.
    at 1:04 pm on December 2, 2011

    I recall Robert Conquest, the historian of Stalinism, described Life and Fate as the first TRUE social realist novel.

    I also recommend Grossman’s Everything Flows, a novella he was still working on when he died of cancer. It follows a man who has been released after decades in Soviet prison camps. He falls in love with his landlady — the chapter in which she describes her participation in the purge of the kulaks, and the resulting terror famine, is astounding. Also astounding are the philosophical chapters near the end in which Grossman gives his theory of Russian history as an almost inevitable progression from the serf slave system to the slave state of the Soviets.

  4. Robert Chandler
    at 5:18 pm on December 2, 2011

    Thanks for all this, Stephen. It is over 25 years since I translated this novel and I am sure there is much that can be improved. I was able to revise a few passages for the recent NYRB & Vintage editions, but it is difficult to get publishers to agree to a wholescale revision because of the expense. Nevertheless, I’d be grateful if you could let me know of any mistranslations and I’ll do my best to get them changed in future reprints. All the best, Robert

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